Testosterone is an anabolic (build up) hormone that plays a crucial role in the body’s response to metabolism, repair, and adaptive capabilities. Testosterone primarily acts at the cellular level of skeletal muscle through binding with androgen receptors. Testosterone induces anabolic mechanism involved in muscle tissue growth, recovery and remodeling. Testosterone stimulates the development of bone and other connective tissues. Testosterone can interact with receptors on neurons and increased the amount of neurotransmitters release, regenerate nerves, and increase cell body size and dendrite length/diameter.
Vitamin D3 is an essential steroid that increases intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc. There is considerable scientific evidence that Vitamin D3 has a variety of effects on immune system function, which may enhance innate immunity and inhibit the development of autoimmunity. Conversely, vitamin D deficiency may compromise the integrity of the immune system and lead to inappropriate immune responses.
DHEA is a steroid hormone. DHEA acts as an antagonist to the effects stress has on the body. DHEA replacement therapy has yielded significant beneficial effects including increased well-being, memory performance, bone mineral density. DHEA has been associated with improved immune system response.
Thyroid hormone is a metabolic hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that regulates temperature, metabolism and cerebral function. It contributes to energy levels and temperature regulation and body warmth. It increases fat breakdown, resulting in weight loss as well as lower cholesterol. It protects against cardiovascular disease and improves cerebral metabolism. It helps to prevent cognitive and memory impairment. Thyroid hormone is most responsible for improvement in energy and reducing fatigue. The thyroid gland produces T4 that is then converted to the active form T3 by an enzyme in the body. The active metabolite form used by the body is T3. Low T3 at the cellular level is responsible for the symptoms of low thyroid not TSH or T4.
Melatonin is a circadian rhythm hormone – thereby affecting the patterns of sleep. Research has shown that the cells of the body rejuvenate and repair during the deeper stages of sleep. It is during the deeper stages of sleep that the body produces natural killer cells or CD4 cells. Melatonin increases the deep stage of sleep and stage IV sleep, thereby increasing and enhancing immunity. Improved sleep patterns serve to energize the body and improve mood. Melatonin acts as an antagonist to cortisol as well as potentially enhancing the effects of cell-mediated immunity. Melatonin may also have a nueroprotective effect. Melatonin is a natural antioxidant with important immunological properties. Melatonin also stimulates the production of glutathione, the most abundant antioxidant molecule. Glutathione detoxifies hydrogen peroxide into water and is essential for lymphocyte activation, proliferation and cytotoxicity.